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Tuesday, September 25, 2018

Interactive Security Apps Drive Smart Home Growth

The evolution of the smart and connected home has created new revenue growth opportunities for consumer electronics vendors and telecom service providers. According to the latest worldwide market study by Berg Insight, the number of smart homes in North America and Europe reached 45 million in 2017.

The most advanced smart home market is still North America, having an installed base of 22.3 million smart homes at the end of 2017. This represents a market penetration of 15.9 percent.

Smart Home Market Development

Between 2016 and 2017, the smart home market grew by 40.7 percent year-on-year. Furthermore, the strong market growth in North America is expected to continue during the next five years.

By 2022, Berg Insight forecasts that more than 63 million homes in North America will be smart -- that's estimated to be 44 percent of all homes in the region.

That being said, the European market is still behind the North American market, in terms of penetration. There were a total of 22.5 million smart homes in Europe at the end of 2017.

The installed base in the European region is forecasted to grow to 84 million homes at the end of 2022 -- that represents a market penetration of 35 percent.

The most popular products for the overall smart home market include smart thermostats, smart light bulbs, smart security cameras, smart air conditioners, smart door locks, smart plugs and smart speakers.

According to the Berg assessment, several well-known vendors are offering these products -- including Nest, Signify, Belkin, D-Link, Assa Abloy, Haier, Sonos, Amazon and Google.

On the North American market, interactive security systems have emerged as the most common type of smart home systems, representing 42 percent of all whole-home systems in the region at the end of 2017. The largest home security providers include ADT, Vivint and Comcast.

In Europe, traditional home automation systems and Do-It-Yourself solutions are more common as whole-home systems. Moreover, eQ-3, Deutsche Telekom and Verisure are estimated to be the largest vendors of whole-home systems in the European region.

Smart speakers with built-in voice assistants have had a major impact on the overall smart home industry in 2017 and 2018. Amazon and Google are the major vendors of such devices, having a combined market share of over 90 percent.

Outlook for Smart Home Application Growth

Driven by the pervasive voice assistant trends, many of the smart home device and system vendors have made their products compatible with Amazon Alexa and Google Assistant in the past year.

"Consumers want convenience and a lot of people buy smart home products in order to facilitate their daily lives," said Martin B├Ąckman, research analyst at Berg Insight. "A major reason why voice-controlled speakers have become so popular is that they simplify the control of smart home devices and enable people to adjust lighting, temperature, multimedia and more from a unified interface."

Monday, September 24, 2018

Enterprise AI and Machine Learning Solutions in Action

A relatively small group of savvy executives have strategies in place to harness new business process automation technologies and thereby advance their digital transformation agenda. Meanwhile, a much larger group is closely following the market leaders, to explore their lessons-learned from pilot projects.

According to the latest worldwide market study by 451 Research, new survey results suggest most organizations are adopting or considering artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) due to its commercial growth benefits, rather than the potential to cut jobs.

Despite being somewhat new, there's adoption momentum for the technology.

Machine Learning Market Development

Almost 50 percent of their survey respondents have deployed or plan to deploy machine learning in their organizations within the next 12 months. Therefore, this paints a more optimistic picture of machine learning adoption than is often portrayed by other industry analysts.

"Out of many possible benefits we presented to our survey respondents, 49 percent cited gaining competitive advantage as the most significant benefit they have received from the technology," said Nick Patience, vice president at 451 Research.

Improving the customer experience came a close second, cited by 44 percent of respondents. Despite all the hype around mass job losses, lowering costs was cited by only a quarter of the survey respondents.

He added, "We think this demonstrates that AI and machine learning is an omni-purpose technology that can bring numerous benefits to organizations, beyond just lowering costs through increased automation."


That being said, there are still some major obstacles that inhibit progress. When asked "what is your organization’s most significant barrier to using machine learning?" most cited a shortage of skilled resources as the top barrier (36 percent).

According to the 451 Research assessment, skilled talent for machine learning projects usually means proven data science skills and experience. And a lack of those capabilities is reinforced further by the finding that data access and preparation is the second biggest barrier cited by survey respondents.

However, 451 Research expects the lack of skills and experience to gradually decline as a barrier when AI tools become easier to use, and the population of users who can leverage machine learning expands.

Outlook for AI and ML Application Growth

Organizations will need to ensure their machine learning deployment brings the business benefits that matter most to their stakeholders. To learn more about the commercial impact that AI and machine learning might have on your organization, consider researching the application of 'quick-start solutions' that enable rapid testing and deployment.

Moreover, some forward-thinking vendors are already addressing the bigger challenges that face enterprise developers and data scientists. To help CIOs and CTOs scale projects, smart vendors offer high-performance server platforms and integrated software that will enable organizations to extract better results from their available data and accelerate the reporting of actionable insights.

Friday, September 21, 2018

Blockchain New Research and Development Trends

Many business leaders have a much better understanding of blockchain technology than just a couple of years ago. There's been a surge in R&D, both internally and in partnership with third parties, and a recognition that blockchain has the potential to be deployed in a variety of commercial use cases.

As the number of blockchain research projects increased, awareness among the pilot participants and elsewhere in their industries gained momentum. Now other companies are beginning to consider whether they, too, should seek to gain a competitive advantage from a proof-of-concept deployment.

Blockchain Market Development

According to the latest worldwide market study by Juniper Research, 65 percent of survey respondent enterprises with over 10,000 employees are considering or actively engaged in blockchain deployment. This marks a significant rise from 2017 when the corresponding figure was 54 percent.

Moreover, nearly a quarter of companies considering deploying blockchain had moved beyond proof-of-concept into trials and commercial rollouts, with dramatic diversification in use cases over the past year.

Only 15 percent of proposed deployments were now related to payments -- compared with 34 percent last year -- with significant interest in opportunities across diverse fields including logistics, authentication and smart contracts.

The study findings also identified savings and cost reductions across a range of verticals in areas such as compliance and fraud reduction, including a forecast of more than $100 billion by 2030 in food exports.

The survey results revealed that nearly half of companies were considering using Ethereum as their blockchain; reflecting the fact that its token standardization has enabled the creation of an ecosystem of Distributed Applications (dApps) to be built on its chain.

Furthermore, all the responding companies which had already invested over $100,000 in blockchain indicated they would be spending at least this amount again on the technology over the next 12 months.

According to the Juniper assessment, this demonstrated initial C-suite feedback had been largely positive in most cases, sufficiently so for executives deciding to move to the next stage of integration. That said, three-quarters of respondents expect some disruption to internal or external systems.

Outlook for Blockchain Applications

"The findings illustrate the need for companies to engage in a prolonged period of parallel running new systems alongside the old, to resolve any issues that might arise," said James Moar, senior analyst at Juniper Research. Regardless, we should anticipate more blockchain application development in the future.

The survey participants also acknowledged IBM as the leading vendor for blockchain project planning and deployment, with the tech giant ranked first by 65 percent of respondents -- that's nearly 10 times more than the second-place vendor, Microsoft (7 percent).

Thursday, September 20, 2018

Why Public Utilities Invest in Cybersecurity Solutions

Upgrading electrical grids and water infrastructure around the world with new capabilities -- such as network communications, remote and automated management of elements in the field, and new utility management functionalities -- continues to gain momentum.

However, smart infrastructure demand means increased dependence on new technology and communications connectivity, which greatly introduces IT security risks.

Smart Utility Market Development

The new infrastructure can expand the number of threat vectors, rendering smart utilities vulnerable to cyber attacks. Maintaining resilient electrical power generation and transmission -- as well as water distribution and treatment -- are key to protecting the public utility environment.

Therefore, effective cybersecurity must be a function of hardware, software, data, and networks.

The modernization of utility infrastructures is enabling increased efficiencies and reliability through digitization, connectivity, and IT-based approaches. Smart cyber assets are transforming public utilities, allowing them to deploy and leverage a new generation of functionality and customer services.

However, smart utilities are also highly vulnerable to cyber threats, and IT security is a primary concern, according to the latest worldwide market study by ABI Research.

Digital security is often unimplemented during utility modernization due to cost, resource, and time constraints. This is exasperated by issues with adapting cybersecurity to OT environments and an overall lack of knowledge and expertise in bridging these divides.

Furthermore, public sector efforts have declined since 2012-2013, when both the United States and European Union markets were actively driving national cybersecurity strategies.

The current U.S. government dropped cybersecurity from its list of priorities, and the European Commission is struggling to get its NIS Directive deployed and obtain the funding for ENISA to fulfill its mandate.

"It seems that the United States and the European Union have forgotten that cybersecurity needs to be a continuous effort, not a one-time announcement to tick all the boxes,” said Michela Menting, research director at ABI Research.

Both electric power and water utilities have reported advanced persistent threats which exploit flaws in industrial control systems. More critically, the typical cyber threats -- such as ransomware and DDoS attacks -- are increasingly affecting utility infrastructure cyber-assets, both on the back and front-end.

While power and water infrastructure stakeholders will spend over $8 billion globally on cyber-securing utility infrastructures in 2018, only a small portion of that will be dedicated to operational technologies and smart systems.

Outlook for Smart Utilities Investment

Grid modernization efforts are an ideal time to start designing and integrating digital security and provide an opportunity for adapting existing mechanisms and processes -- from industrial control systems to smart meters.

"Utility organizations should remain firm in their commitment to cybersecurity, despite the backseat public support. Fortunately, from a private sector perspective, a growing vendor ecosystem is emerging to hopefully address these key issues," Menting concludes.

Monday, September 17, 2018

Mobility Solutions Revenue will Reach $1.8 Trillion in 2022

Advances in both the consumer and business technology sectors have driven the adoption of mobile internet access and associated service delivery.  Applications of mobile devices -- by customers, business partners, or employees -- delivers unprecedented access to information, improved collaboration, and increased productivity.

Worldwide investment in mobility solutions is forecast to reach $1.8 trillion in 2022, according to the latest worldwide market study by International Data Corporation (IDC). While annual growth will vary somewhat, IDC expects the overall five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) will be 2.8 percent.

Furthermore, mobility spending is already on track to reach $1.63 trillion in 2018.

Mobility Solutions Market Development

Consumers will likely provide more than 70 percent of worldwide mobility spending, with slightly more than half of this amount spent on mobile connectivity services and most of the remainder going toward new devices, such as smartphones. Growth in the consumer mobile telecom sector will experience a five-year CAGR of 2.2 percent.

From a business use perspective, the professional services industry is forecast be the leader for mobility spending in 2018 at $44.9 billion, followed closely by the banking industry at $44.5 billion. Discrete manufacturing, retail, and education will round out the top 5 industries this year.

More than half of business mobility spending -- and nearly three quarters for the professional services industry -- will go to connectivity and enterprise mobility services. While mobile devices will be the second largest area of spending, most industries will also make considerable investments in mobile application development platforms.

The industries that will see the fastest growth in mobility solutions spending are discrete manufacturing and utilities (each with a 5.9 percent CAGR), telecommunications (5.8 percent CAGR), and process manufacturing (5.7 percent CAGR). Healthcare, with a 5 percent CAGR, is forecast to move ahead of the education sector by 2022.

"While the overall mobility market matures, with less device and platform differentiation, the use cases for mobile devices and apps in the enterprise continue to expand," said Phil Hochmuth, program director at IDC. "Business is moving beyond using mobile devices for basic communications and productivity applications to more advanced, task- and industry-specific apps and workloads."

From a technology perspective, mobility services will be the largest area of spending throughout the 2017-2022 forecast period, surpassing $1 trillion in 2021. Hardware will be the second largest technology category with spending forecast to reach $738 billion in 2022.

Despite being the smallest technology category, software spending will experience a 12.9 percent CAGR over the five-year forecast. Mobile enterprise applications will be the largest category of mobile software spending, growing to nearly $8 billion in 2022.

Businesses will also increase their efforts with mobile application development platforms, with a five-year CAGR forecast of 15.1 percent, making it the fastest growing technology category overall. In fact, all four software categories -- including mobile enterprise security and enterprise mobility management -- are forecast to deliver double-digit five-year CAGRs.

Outlook for Mobility Applications Investment

The United States and China will be the two largest geographic markets, with each seeing more than $300 billion in mobility spending in 2018. Japan will be the third largest country for mobility spending at nearly $107 billion, followed by India and Brazil at $51 billion and $44 billion, respectively.

India will see the fastest growth in mobility spending with a five-year CAGR of 7.9 percent. Venezuela and the Philippines will also have CAGRs greater than 7 percent while three countries -- Israel, Taiwan, and Saudi Arabia -- are forecast to experience a decline in mobility spending over the next five years.

Moreover, large and very large businesses combined will account for nearly $197 billion in mobility spending in 2018, growing to more than $245 billion in 2022. The small business sector will grow to more than $100 billion in 2022 while medium-size businesses will surpass $94 billion in 2022. The small office market will spend more than $70 billion on mobility solutions in 2022.

Friday, September 14, 2018

How Biometrics will Advance Mobile Payment Security

With password-based personal identity solutions becoming increasingly impractical, device vendors and mobile network service providers have begun implementing an alternative second factor -- using a fingerprint, iris, facial feature or vein pattern to establish an individual's identity.

Biometric identifiers provide the user an additional layer of smartphone security. There is increased reliance on biometric user identification in the security industry itself -- iris and fingerprint scanning are commonplace in the U.S. market, as well as Europe and some other parts of the world.

In the mobile communications arena, biometric recognition technologies are increasingly being deployed to identify mobile subscribers and to allow them to unlock their handsets, as well as being used as a method to authenticate the user when making a payment through mobile devices.

Mobile Payments Market Development

Juniper Research now predicts that the biggest shift in mobile payment security will be the move towards software-based methods, which rely on standard smartphone components.

They forecast that users of these methods will increase from an estimated 429 million in 2018 to over 1.5 billion in 2023. Juniper analysts believe that this will usher in an era where mobile payments authentication utilizes multiple biometrics based on people’s device usage patterns.

The latest Juniper Research worldwide market study found that the use of software-based biometrics -- such as that offered by voice or facial recognition -- will fuel growth in smartphone mobile payments across all price ranges.


The hardware-agnostic nature of this will be key to driving adoption, increasing biometrically authenticated transactions at an average of 76 percent per year globally. The major growth for this will come from Asia, with North American usage growing at just 46 percent per year.

"Mobile payment security will broaden hugely thanks to the implementation of pure software solutions," said James Moar, senior analyst at Juniper Research. "The key battle now will be to convince users, particularly those in Europe and North America, that these methods are just as secure as traditional hardware-based security."

Juniper Research anticipates that fingerprint biometrics will become increasingly prevalent, with an estimated 4.5 billion smartphones using the technology by 2023.

Outlook for Mobile Biometric Technologies

However, with the Apple iPhone X and other smartphones offering facial and eye-based identification, Juniper believes that fingerprint sensors will decline as a proportion of smartphone biometric hardware.

This will reduce from just over 95 percent of smartphones using fingerprint-based security in 2018, to under 90 percent by 2023. Thanks also to the increase in software-based biometrics, fingerprint sensor use will become much more contextual, rather than the default biometric option.

Wednesday, September 12, 2018

How Digital Commerce Will Transform Global Retail

After two years of collecting data from payment networks, payment processors, financial institutions, digital wallet providers and retailers worldwide, 451 Research has launched its Global Unified Commerce Forecast. Here's a summary of their findings.

"The confluence of new technologies, new entrants and new consumer demands has catapulted retail into a state of flux," said Jordan McKee, research director at 451 Research. "These market shifts are influencing not only the way in which shoppers choose to obtain their desired goods and services, but also how and where they spend their money."


Digital Commerce Market Development

Their new research report provides quantitative guidance on these shifts in purchase activity in developed and emerging markets around the world. Among many findings, the latest 451 Research market study found several unique trends that will transform the retail sector in the years ahead.

One out of every ten dollars spent globally this year will be spent online.

Consumers are increasingly turning to online and mobile channels to make retail purchases that they traditionally would have made in-store in prior years -- thanks to new online purchasing experiences like click-and-collect and mobile order-ahead.

According to their global forecast, online commerce will continue to expand with speed through 2022, growing at more than six times the rate of in-store sales and cresting at $5.8 trillion.

China has become an e-commerce and m-commerce powerhouse in recent years, rapidly evolving into the world’s largest market for digital sales.

That said, the forecast predicts that China will exceed $1 trillion in online retail spending by year-end, making it the first country in the world to cross this significant digital commerce milestone.

Mobile has already become the primary computing platform for the world’s population, and by 2019 it will become the top digital commerce platform for consumers around the globe.

Mobile will increasingly be the first, and often the only, touchpoint retailers will have with a shopper.

Sales executed via mobile contactless payment methods -- such as Apple Pay and Google Pay -- are growing at an impressive 30.7 percent CAGR through 2022.

However, to keep this in perspective, consider that they will account for just 1.4 percent of global brick and mortar in-store retail sales in 2018 and reach only 3.8 percent by 2022.

According to 451 Research, their Global Unified Commerce Forecast is intended to become an annual market-sizing, segmenting and forecasting of omni-channel commerce across 60+ countries.

Monday, September 10, 2018

Telecom Providers Adopt Software-Defined Infrastructure

Within the telecom sector, the ongoing shift to software-defined infrastructure -- where IT workloads run virtualized or containerized on industry-standard hardware and software platforms -- is happening at an unprecedented pace.

This transformation is visible across the whole communications industry, where entire data centers are now being converted from vertically integrated systems to software-defined IT infrastructure.

Telecom IT Infrastructure Market Development

According to the latest worldwide market study by International Data Corporation (IDC), this trend will continue unabated as telecom service providers seek to expand their sphere of influence on initiatives such as mobile media delivery, edge computing, the Internet of Things and connected devices.

In an industry where legacy business models and government regulations can no longer guarantee revenue growth, telecom service providers must address intense competition by advancing digital innovation and reducing their traditional IT operating costs.

Initiatives such as 5G wireless communications or rich media delivery via mobile platforms cannot be delivered via legacy platforms that are rigid, have scaling challenges, and require months of planning to deploy efficiently.

An assessment from IDC sized the market for IT compute and storage infrastructure at $10.81 billion in 2017. However, as telecom service providers aggressively build out their infrastructure, IDC projects this market to experience a five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.2 percent with investment totaling $16.35 billion in 2022.

Moreover, communication network providers worldwide have followed the hyperscale public cloud services provider operations model. They have focused on increasing their in-house software development efforts using open source stacks and embraced Agile development practices.

They've also partnered with systems integrators to convert their data centers to software-defined architectures, participated in industrywide infrastructure consortiums, and made a concerted effort to adopt cloud-native technologies and also move network function workloads onto a virtualized or containerized infrastructure.

They are shifting to a single infrastructure platform that supports current and new generation telecom-specific as well as business applications that can run interchangeably in virtual machines, containers, and bare metal.

IDC analysts observed that many telecom service provider CIOs and CTOs have already ushered in a model for flexible and scalable consumption of IT compute, storage, and networking resources.

Outlook for Telecom IT Infrastructure Innovation

"Telecoms are the forefront of the innovation curve," said Ashish Nadkarni, group vice president at IDC. "The shift to a software-defined infrastructure enables them to focus on innovation, drive operations costs down, and continue to differentiate based on the uniqueness of their products and services."

The resulting report from the market study presents IDC's inaugural forecast for a significant portion of the IT infrastructure market for telecom service providers. Revenue is presented for the overall market and each of the two market segments (infrastructure hardware -- consisting of servers, storage -- and infrastructure software).

Friday, September 07, 2018

Hybrid Industrial Cloud Computing Gains Momentum

Why do most internet of things (IoT) analytics operations occur in the cloud? The public cloud offers a centralized location for large amounts of affordable storage and computing power. But there are many instances in which it makes more sense to perform analytics closer to the thing or activity that is generating or collecting data ­– equipment deployed at customer sites.

This is particularly true in industrial and manufacturing environments, which are familiar with the challenges of managing massive amounts of unstructured data, but may lag when it comes to the virtualization of IT infrastructure.

Industrial Cloud Market Development

Advances in intelligent process manufacturing, factory automation, artificial intelligence and machine learning models all benefit from edge analytics implementations, yet will likely become islands of automation without a cohesive industrial cloud computing platform.

The industrial cloud covers everything from the factory floor to the industrial campus, and it is unifying the supply chain as companies employ a combination of digital business, product, manufacturing, asset, and logistics planning to streamline operations across both internal and external processes.

Industrial cloud applications make it easier to optimize asset and process allocations by modeling the physical world and use data and subsequent insights to enable new services or improve control over environmental, health, and safety issues.

The virtualization of business-critical infrastructure is transforming the production and distribution of goods and services throughout the supply chain, as industrial organizations shift focus to hybrid cloud computing deployments that connect and integrate on-premise IT resources with public cloud resources.

According to the latest worldwide market study by ABI Research, hybrid industrial cloud adoption will more than double over the next five years at a respectable 21.1 percent CAGR.

Initial IoT deployments in industrial markets reflect the sector's Machine to Machine (M2M) heritage: private cloud Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS). The private IaaS model served as a solid starting point for many organizations that wanted the benefit of cloud scale, but with minimal interruption to normal IT operations.

The industrial cloud Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) model extended the functional capabilities of on-premise IaaS solutions by shifting commodity tasks -- i.e. capacity planning, software maintenance, patching -- to public cloud service providers. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) took it a step farther but in the form of managed services.

"Manufacturing and industrial organizations were not born from the same digital core as the people they employ or the products they produce," said Ryan Martin, principal analyst at ABI Research. "But they also harness some of the greatest potential thanks to massive amounts of untapped plant and process log data. Harvested with the right analytical tools and guidance, these data streams can deliver value greater than the sum of their parts."

The factory floor’s historical predisposition toward on-premise solutions has been supplanted by a campus-led approach underscored by a more recent push to connect HMI, SCADA, and control networks to higher-level enterprise systems, as well as the public cloud.

However, getting to the point where all these moving pieces come together in a real-world, production environment can be messy. Many Operational Technology (OT) devices come up short in key areas such as interoperability and security due to the prevalence of proprietary protocols in the legacy M2M market.

Outlook for Industrial Cloud App Development

"Most OT systems depend on infrastructure with lifetimes measured in decades, while IT systems can be upgraded frequently at little or no cost," concludes Martin.

As a result, industrial and manufacturing markets typically employ a staged technology integration strategy that favors suppliers whose hardware, software, and services can be acquired incrementally, with minimal disruption to existing operations. The hybrid IT infrastructure models can fit very well in this operational environment.

Tuesday, September 04, 2018

Mobile Merchant Transaction Growth in Emerging Markets

Through its ubiquity and reach, the mobile phone has become an enabler of financial inclusion for developing nations across the globe. Many countries in areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa and the Asia-Pacific region have experienced the rapid adoption of 'mobile remittance' services.

Numerous telecom service providers have expanded and tailored their services to offer the world’s poorest populations access to more sophisticated products  -- such as personal savings and loans. Worldwide a large number of people who remain 'unbanked' are without a bank account or credit history.

Financial Services Market Development

According to the latest global market study by Juniper Research, the use of mobile devices to make retail and store payments will act as a driver for financial services inclusion of the unbanked in emerging markets.

The research forecasts that mobile merchant transactions by unbanked individuals will grow from 1.8 billion per annum in 2018 to 3.8 billion by 2023.


The new study found that Kenya and India will be core incubator markets for merchant services. Safaricom’s Lipa Na M-PESA product already has over 100,000 merchants enrolled, and by 2023, merchant payment transactions in the Middle East & Africa alone will surpass $16 billion per year.

The research acknowledged Mastercard as a key innovator in this emerging financial services sector. The company has launched a QR code-based solution with the aim of connecting 40 million micro and small merchants to its payments network by the end of 2020.

"Previously merchant payments relied upon SMS to facilitate transactions, with customers texting a code to initiate payment; thus the process was slow and inefficient. With QR code solutions, shoppers simply scan a merchant code to rapidly initiate the payment process," said Lauren Foye, senior analyst at Juniper Research.

Juniper analysts praised mobile merchant payments, as they make digital transactions accessible to a much broader segment of society. To nurture this offering, Juniper recommends that mobile network providers offer value-added services, such as microloans, analytical tools and advice for businesses, in addition to SMS-based marketing services.

Outlook for Unbanked Financial Service Offerings

However, Juniper cautions that associated mobile service tariff rates must remain low, citing the fact that Lipa Na M-PESA was obliged to impose a 50 percent reduction in transaction fees last year, both to address customer indifference and resist new competition.

Also, in some emerging markets, mobile money will provide those in financial need with greater access to welfare and state payments. While bulk dispersal (G2P) payments have had some success, with the GSMA reporting 27 mobile money providers offering such transactions at the end of 2017, many users have been concerned about rising costs, negating their effectiveness.